When selecting the angle of the tool, it is necessary to consider the influence of various factors, such as workpiece materials, tool materials, processing properties (such as rough machining or finish machining) etc., which must be reasonably selected according to the specific situation.
The cutting tool materials must have high hardness, good wear resistance, good bending strength, good impact toughness and chemical inertness, good processability (cutting, forging and heat treatment, etc.) and cannot be easily deformed.
Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride is suitable for cutting high hardness hardened steel and hard cast iron; polycrystalline diamond is suitable for cutting iron-free metals, alloys, plastics and glass steel; carbon tool steel and alloy tool steel can only be used for making tools such as trowels, dies and taps.
Carbide indexable inserts have now been coated with titanium carbide, titanium nitride, alumina hard or composite hard layers by chemical vapor deposition. The growing physical vapor deposition method can be used not only for cemented carbide tools, but also for high speed steel tools such as drills, hobs, taps and milling cutters. As a barrier to chemical diffusion and heat conduction, the hard coating slows the wear of the tool during cutting, and the service life of the coated blade is about one to three times longer than that of the uncoated one.
According to the cutting process and the blade edge shape, the tools can be classified into three types. General-purpose tools such as turning tools, planing knives or blades, milling cutters (excluding formed turning tools, forming planers and forming cutters), boring tools, drill bits, reaming drills, reamers and saws; forming tools, such as forming turning tools, forming planers, forming cutters, broaches, conical reamers, and various threading tools; the generating tool are machined by the generating method. Tooth surface or similar workpieces such as hobs, gear shaper cutter, shaving cutters, bevel gear planers, bevel gear milling cutters and so on.
The working part of the tool is the part that produces and processes the chip, including the blade, the structure that breaks or rolls the chip, the space for chip removal or chip storage, and the passage of the cutting fluid.
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